Web-based repository: Literature review | search of current work in wearable technologies, smart fabrics, use of physiological sensors, especially in art, design, social, fashion, innovative uses, i ncluding conferences in design, art, HCI that describe interactive uses, URLs, PDF files, etc

wearable technologies
smart fabrics
physiological sensors

wearable technologies:



• in art and design
  1. txOom has developed from the TGarden, with a tighter focus on materials, objects and spaces that are opposing concepts of clothing and architecture as static and pre-defined structures. within txOom we will develop frameworks and prototypes of environments with an ability to adopt behaviours and properties similar to living organisms - spaces, objects, materials and media that can be shaped by the activity happening within or around them. txOom involved development of experimental technologies, human-computer-human interaction, digital physics, phenomenology, bio-mimetics and many more fascinating topics.  (accessed Jan, 2004). http://f0.am/txoom/research.html

  2. Taking a cross-disciplinary approach to wearables, Claudia Güdel, founder of Basel Switzerland's Co-Lab, sees collaboration as the key. Co-Lab's latest project, "Fab: Filters and Blockers" is a series of fashion and technology workshops focusing on redefining protective clothing for contemporary society. As an art and technology collective Co-Lab produces installations, clothing, and wearable devices. Some examples are "Paul" a skirt with built in display capabilities and "Magic Eye", a light object that reacts to movement and sounds in space. Here, fashion and technology contribute to a constellation of artistic activity and output. Claudia Güdel http://www.co-lab.ch and http://www.co-lab.ch/fab

  3. Working with fashion as a system for interaction, Elise Co, Professor of New Media at Basel School of Art and Design in Switzerland, investigates the conceptual and aesthetic potential of computational clothing, and the ways that technology can expand the notions of fashion, relationships to the body, expression, and communication. Her projects include "Perforation", which uses fiber optics to challenge the materiality of the body, and "Halo", a system for reconfigurable and programmable garments. With a background in architecture, Elise's work treats the body and computational data as actors within relational structures. This involves creating new garment paradigms, not of "wearable computing" cyborgs, but of carefully designed pieces that are responsive, reconfigurable, and beautiful. Elise Co http://acg.media.mit.edu/people/elise and http://www.unibas.ch/sfg/vis_com0102/beyond

  4. Despina Papadopolous, founder of 5050 limited, encourages action. A philosopher and technologist, Papadopolous collaborates with fashion designers and researchers to explore the "maximum radius possibilities" of fashion and technology. Her projects include "Courtly Bags", in collaboration with NYC designers As Four, and "M-Bracelet", funded by NCR Knowledge Lab. 5050's latest project, "Moi" is based on the idea of "staple technology" that starts with a simple bright light. Through it's simplicity, "Moi" encourages individuals to "imagine and transform an experience on their own terms". "[Moi is] the most basic element turned into the most complex device once it is worn," explains Papadopolous. Human, not technological interaction is the focus. Despina Papadopoulos http://www.moinewyork.com/ and http://www.5050ltd.com/

  5. So far wearable computers have failed to gain public acceptance. Institutions like Interaction Design Institute IVREA, Italy and Parsons School of Design, in New York City are taking note. They now offer courses, which investigate the expressive potential of wearables. In the artist's case, the best approach would be greater cross-disciplinary communication through the hybridization between art, fashion, technology, and design.
    Interaction Design Institute IVREA http://www.interaction-ivrea.it

  6. Dianna Miller - WRAPT-SOUND TO SUIT THE WEARER, Expressing personal style through wearable sound

  7. SMART SKINS FOR DUMB OBJECTS - Using interactive accessories to transform everyday objects. Rikako Sakai (Japan)
    The aim of this project is to stimulate direct communication among people in everyday settings through 'wearable' computers for the objects they use. This would also encourage people to establish long-lasting attachments to their personal belongings.
    A wearable chair cover has a display that shows others how long you have been sitting on the chair.

  8. WiFi-SM, wearable patches to feel the global pain, by Christophe Bruno http://www.unbehagen.com/wifism/

  9. Parsons School of Design http://www.parsons.edu and http://a.parsons.edu/~fashiontech

  10. Just as the peacock relies on his cumbersome tail to convince the peahen of his desirable qualities, many human acts of communication depend on equally costly, painful, awkward or dangerous displays. The development on digital technology is based on an instrumental rationality that is ill fitted to explain or support such costly performances or the human desire for personal expression. We have designed a series of personal, digital devices that are intentionally difficult to use as a means of exploring how digital technology can meet these awkward human strategies for communication and self-expression. http://bitters.unsworn.org/

  11. Benoît Maubrey  - Audio Ballerinas - a Berlin-based art group, AUDIO GRUPPE, that build and perform with electro-acoustic clothing and suits. Electronic looping devices, light sensors, radio wave receivers are also included on the plexiglas surfaces of the tutus: the Audio Ballerinas were able to create an entire spectrum of sounds via their clothing. http://home.snafu.de/maubrey/

  12. babootzka + provides an elegant and intimate design solution for on-the-body computing. http://polo.lancs.ac.uk/sheridan/thePooch/projex/babootzka.htm

  13. Schizophrenic Cyborg + is a part reversal of cyborg technology where cyborgs are augmented by an electronic communication display and yet this display is visible to others not the cyborgs themselves. An outward facing wearable computer, used to display the wearer's inner thoughts and feelings.

  14. Steve Mann's EyeTap - 'Interrogative Art, Performances, Cultural Criticism' - http://www.eyetap.org/publications/art/

  15. Wear Me!! Network Exchange - Future Physical for artists, designers, technologists and the public to debate and view topical developments and innovations in wearable computing and smart textiles. Where artists, fashion, interface designers mix electronics, computing and textile technologies... http://www.futurephysical.org/pages/content/wearable/nex.html

  16. Pamela Z - BodySynthª http://www.pamelaz.com/bodysynth.html

  17. Wayne Siegel - Movement Study - http://www.daimi.au.dk/~wsiegel/Movement.html

  18. Xin Wei Sha, Sponge Group Sponge site http://sponge.org/ and T-garden http://sponge.org/projects/gallery/tg_g.html and http://www.siggraph.org/artdesign/gallery/S00/interactive/thumbnail18.html

  19. Ranjit Makkuni - main site http://www.crossingproject.net/tech/develop/develop2.htm 

  20. Cultural Learning Projects - The Crossing - http://www.medicif.org/dig_library/StateArt/Advanced_User_Interface/Makkuni/makkuni.html

  21. Laetitia Sonami, Lady's Glove http://www.sonami.net/lady_glove2.htm

  22. Isa Gordon - cyberfashion show - http://psymbiote.org/index.html

  23. Faith Wilding - The SmartMom Sensate Pregnancy Dress - This Smart Maternity Dress uses the technology of the Smart T-Shirt adapted from militiary battlefield medicine. This nifty item uses optical sensors connected to a web of coded fiberoptic lines leading to a radio transmitter to provide constant monitoring of body systems and data such as heartbeat, blood pressure, fluid levels, nervous functioning, the mother's fantasy life, sexual and eating urges, and the like. By connecting the sensor system for the mother to a fetal monitoring and imaging system for the fetus, a total inside/outside, mother/baby monitoring and surveilling system is created which could allow the remote obstetrician to be far more closely informed about h/er patient than s/he now is in civilian life. http://www.andrew.cmu.edu/user/fwild/home.html

  24. Digital Jewelry Explorations 3D Tangible Objects, Kimberly Voigt AKIMBO Inc. - is a collection of Armpieces and Neckpieces that explore the aesthetic beauty of unique three-dimensional wearable objects and challenge traditional adornment issues. http://www.siggraph.org/artdesign/gallery/S00/mutations/thumbnail3.html

  25. NEW NOMADS, an exploration of Wearable Electronics he idea of integrating technology into clothing is therefore a logical step, which the recent development of conductive textiles, embroidered sensors, fabric switches, fabric wiring, and flexible fabric displays - carried out at Philips Design - has made possible to explore. http://www.design.philips.com/smartconnections/newnomads/index.html

  26. The Conductor's Jacket - is a wearable physiological monitoring device which has been specifically designed to provide data on the physiological state of a conductor during rehearsals and performances. This jacket was designed to provide a testbed for the study of musical and emotional expression; it has recently been used in a series of data-acquisition experiments by several professional conductors and musicians in Boston. This project is intended to answer certain fundamental questions about the nature of musical expression and how it is conveyed through gestures. http://web.media.mit.edu/~marrin/conductor.htm http://web.media.mit.edu/~marrin/

  27. Pikapika dons a new wireless interactive dance system (SSpeaPer) created by Curtis Bahn. SSpeaPer naturally locates and spacializes the electronic sounds to emanate from the speakers mounted on her body. As Pikapika moves her gestural information is sent by radio to an interactive computer music system. The sounds are then broadcast back to her body, creating a new sort of audio "alias" for her character; a sonic mask. http://www.arts.rpi.edu/crb/Activities/SSpeaPer/pikapika.htm

    "SSpeaPer" is an interactive sonic context for live performance currently in development by composer/ programmer Curtis Bahn and dancer/ ethnomusicologist Tomie Hahn

  28. Story Beads: a wearable for distributed and mobile storytelling by Barbara Barry, Master of Science in Media Arts & Sciences, September 6, 2000. http://ic.media.mit.edu/icSite/icpublications/Thesis/barbaraMS.html


in social situations
  1. EPICentre in collaboration with IC-CAVE, at Abertay - project part-funded by the European Regional Development Fund through the East of Scotland Objective 2 Programme - A Display & Communication Technology Test-bed for East of Scotland SMEs. http://epicentre.abertay.ac.uk/research/mobile_wearable.asp - Targets the use of wearable computers for public information access and infotainment applications.

  2. 2WEAR - A project that explores the concept of a personal system that is formed by putting together computing elements in an ad-hoc fashion using short-range radio. Certain elements are embedded into wearable objects, such as a wristwatch and small general-purpose compute/storage modules that can be attached to clothes or placed inside a wallet. http://2wear.ics.forth.gr/

  3. Accenture Personal Awareness Assistant—a wearable computing device—via wireless networking and a microphone earpiece. Using a speech recognition engine, two small microphones, an inconspicuous camera and a scrolling audio buffer, the Personal Awareness Assistant is always on, passively listening to what a user says. What catapults the Assistant past a simple recording device is its ability to respond to particular contexts and situations. http://www.accenture.com/xd/xd.asp?it=enWeb&xd=services%5Ctechnology%5Cresearch%5Ctech_personal_aware.xml

  4. The Wearable Group at Carnegie Mellon is an interdisciplinary team of researchers from the Carnegie Institute of Technology (the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and the Institute for Complex Engineered Systems), the School of Computer Science (the Computer Science Department, Robotics Institute, and Human-Computer Interaction Institute), and the College of Fine Arts (the School of Design). Combining a decade of investigation into the architectural and interface requirements of wearable systems, the Group is now entering a new phase of research in the area of pervasive computing.
  5. Kathleen Brandt + Brian Lonsway (aka Brandway) @ Parsons Center for New Design, June 2003 - Prudent Avoidance, Brandway's most recent project, was funded through Franklin Furnace's THE FUTURE OF THE PRESENT 2002 program, and looks at data through the lens of electro-magnetic frequency exposure. Through an evolving online database and wearable data collection device, the work explores the contradictions of data collection, measurement, and representation when used to measure things like "human risk."

  6. D2: Wearable Captioning Device Project Director: Leanne West A wearable device, using mobile wireless technology, that provides text captioning for individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing will be developed and evaluated on this project. The device will use mobile wireless technology to receive text streams from transmitting stations in community venues such as theaters, schools, businesses, and government facilities. The goal is to assist individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing overcome barriers in community settings where speech is the primary mode of communication. http://www.wirelessrerc.gatech.edu/projects/development/d2.html

  7. Report from Numer 02 - April 19-21, 2002, Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris, France, http://www.numer.org “Beyond the Screen" - examined the relationship of physical objects (from wearables to tangible interfaces) to networked digital systems. Regine Halter and Dorothee Schiesser (Shoplab) of the Hyperwerk studio (www.hyperwerk.ch) in Basel, "We like design (but we don't know if design likes us)" - interactive projects ranging from fabric pattern design created by tracking people in a space to augmented experiences in the retail shopping world. Taking the virtual onto the street was Katherine Moriwaki and Sabine Seymour, both Design Fellows at Parsons School of Design in NYC. A collaboration studio in Wearable Technology and Fashion (http://a.parsons.edu/~fashiontech) and fashion and technology as the ultimate "fantasy amplifiers" - focusing on student projects which included a camera-flash necklace called the "Man Repellent" and a t-shirt as dynamic visual display for activist groups. Finishing up the panel was the French duo, ElectronicShadow.com who presented a slick version of hybrid networked spaces with multiple projection screens, a wearable scarf/telephone, and a new interpretation of Internet time as the global "25th time zone"

  8. The Sensate Liner for Combat Casualty Care uses optical fibers to detect bullet wounds and special sensors that interconnects in order to monitor vital signs during combat conditions. Medical sensing devices that are attached to the body plug into the computerized shirt, creating a flexible motherboard. The GTWM is woven so that plastic optical fibers and other special threads are integrated into structure of the fabric.

  9. Eyetop Ingineo, the informationwear company ingineo offers turn-key wearable computing solutions especially developed for industrial applications. solid know-how in innovation. informationwear concept is naturally user-centric and plug-and-play http://www.eyetop.net/home/default.asp

  10. MicroOptical - Whether you're viewing a waveform, non-destructive testing of materials, remote video surveillance, situational awareness with GPS, vital signs, checking your email or watching a DVD, MicroOptical's eyewear viewers put information right in front of you wherever you are. Applications span uses in industry, medicine, military and law enforcement and even in the home. http://www.microopticalcorp.com/Applications/HomePage.html

  11. DoCoMo develop “Finger phone” This wearable telephone handset under development by Japanese telco NTT DoCoMo transforms the human hand into an active part of the receiver using bone conduction. FingerWhisper consists of a watch-like unit worn on the wrist that converts incoming sounds into vibrations that it sends through the bones to the tip of the index finger. http://www.gizmo.com.au/public/News/news.asp?articleid=2434

  12. frog design and Motorola launch prototypes of Next Generation Wearable Wireless Solutions, wireless lifestyle series combines fashion and technology http://www.frogdesign.com/company/news_press/press_releases/2003/pr046.html

  13. Nomadic Radio provides an audio-only wearable interface to unify remote information services such as email, voice mail, hourly news broadcasts, and personal calendar events. These messages are automatically downloaded to a wearable device throughout the day and users can browse them using speech recognition and tactile input. To provide an unobtrusive interface for nomadic users, the audio/text information is presented using a combination of ambient and auditory cues, synthetic speech and spatialized audio. This project addressed techniques for peripheral awareness, spatial listening and contextual notification to manage the user's focus of attention on a wearable audio computing platform. http://web.media.mit.edu/%7Enitin/NomadicRadio/index.html

  14. Accessory Nerve Line Christiansen; expressive communication signaling; IDII 2002

  15. The Cookie Factor Natasha Sopieva, David Slocombe; affective computing through scent and narrative; IDII 2002

  16. The GetArt Palette Chris Noessel; mobile learning tool for children; IDII 2002 http://projects.interaction-ivrea.it/2002/desire/getart_palette/

  17. F & R Hugs - Francesca Rosella, Rikako Sakai; send a hug with your mobile phone; IDII 2002
    http://projects.interaction-ivrea.it/2002/desire/f+rhugs/F+R HUGS.pdf
  18. Lucky Strikes - Deepak Pakhare, Shyama Duriseti; enabling fun and self expression; IDII 2002
    http://people.interaction-ivrea.it/d.pakhare/projdesire.htm and http://people.interaction-ivrea.it/d.pakhare/luckystrikes/dias.html


• in fashion

  1. Styleborg magazine - online magazine directly related to textiles, fashion, technology http://www.styleborg.com/archives/cat_textiles_materials.html

  2. courtly bags and love jackets. The Love Jackets were developed as a paradigm for contemporary clothing. We are concerned with creating wearable technology, which can balance traditional and advanced modes of expression. Each jacket has a unique pair, programmed to respond only to the one that sends the same message. Each contains an infra-red LED which transmits a 40-kHz signal and an infra-red detector; both are driven by a micro controller. A series of red mini LEDs, arranged in two small circles, are sewn onto the jackets, one in the front and the other at the back. http://www.5050ltd.com/lovejack.html http://www.5050ltd.com/courtly_bags.html

  3. Streetware at Carnegie Mellon University - An explosion of recent advances has left the designers of information technology with virtually limitless technological possibilities. http://www.ices.cmu.edu/design/streetware/

  4. Art of Technology - Wrist Wearable Vital Signs Monitor (EU AMON Project) http://www.art-of-technology.ch/webapps/default/avs/en/technologies/hdp_mcm/examples/amon

  5. Acessories, wearable - eHolster htt://www.eholster.com/ - Wearable cases for personal technology

  6. Fashion Victims: an Unconventional Research Approach in the Field of Mobile Communication http://www.fashionvictims.org/ Agnelli Davide, Buzzini Dario, Drori Tal

  7. Flight dream is a work in progress by Simona Brusa Pasque' and Dianna Miller. A cape designed to fulfils the desire to flygives the wearer the sensation of flight through sound, motion, and pressure. After exploring physical sensations associated with flight, our team created a garment that gives the wearer the sensation of flight through sound, motion, and pressure .Onlookers also share in the sensation as the style and sound alter the perception of space surrounding the wearer. http://www.flightdream.org/

  8. Orang-Otang Peel-It - Wrist-wearable cases for PDA's and PIM's - http://www.orang-otang.com/

  9. Scott eVest - Clothing designed for integration with technology - with personal area network. Discreetly carry cell phone, pager, PDA, CD/MP3 player digital camera, portable keyboard, GPS device, two-way radio and even bottled water or soda, wallet, keys and more.  Uses a Personal Area Network (PAN): a patent-pending system of conduits for headphones/earbud and other connecting wires. http://www.scottevest.com

  10. Fashion shows, wearable - Charmed Technology - "Brave New Unwired World" fashion show series - http://www.charmed.com/

  11. Techfashion Directory : Wireless Wearables http://www.metrofashion.com/techfashion0.html

  12. Closer: Wearable in a Distant Society. Alison Lewis | a dot parsons dot edu | Concentration: Physical Computing | See presentations

  13. British Council's Culture-Lab


  14. Bristol Wearable Computing Project - concerned with exploring the potential of computer devices that are as unconsciously portable and as personal as clothes or jewellery.  Projects include CyberJacket, BlazerJet and e-Gilet. http://wearables.cs.bris.ac.uk/

  15. Infineon - Wearable Electronics - http://www.wearable-electronics.de/intl/fotos_presse.asp

  16. Compass Coat - Stijn Ossevort, wool coat dynamically illuminates on North facing side, IDII 2002

  17. Clothing+ is a leading supplier of wearable technology products and components http://www.clothingplus.fi/
    OrangeImagineering - The Wearaphone is the first publically available wearable technology product from Orange. Developed by Clothing+ with OrangeImagineering http://www.orangeimagineering.com/template.php?page=projects&sub=1

  18. a) Oricalco Corpo Nove / R&D Grado Zero Espace. This men's shirt by Corpo Nova is woven with titanium, which allows the fabric to react to temperature shifts. The shirt holds its wrinkles when bunched up, and then instantly relaxes when exposed to a current of hot air (as from an electric hair dryer). The shirt can thus be 'ironed' while its user wears it.

    b) Cooling Jacket Corpo Nove / R&D Grado Zero Espace. This jacket is based on a miniaturised air-conditioning system that was commissioned by the U.S Army during the Cold War. It was designed to be fitted to the inside of combat clothing, allowing soldiers to fight and survive in conditions of extreme heat - perhaps after a nuclear blast. Fifty meters of 2-millimeter-wide plastic tubing are needed to construct the internal cooling circuit in Corpo Nove's Cooling Jacket.

    c) Absolute Zero Corpo Nove / R&D Grado Zero Espace - Aerogel is one of the lightest substances on earth; it is also an excellent insulator, making it an appropriate material for expeditions- to outer space or the Artic Circle- requiring lightweight protection from the elements. Invented in the 1930's, Aerogel was used to insulate the Mars Pathfinder in 1999. To create this hyperinsulated jacket, Corpo Nove sewed bags of powdered Aerogel between two layers of fabric, creating an extremely warm, light coat.

    d) Liquid ceramic coat - Corpo Nove / R&D Grado Zero Espace - The latest generation of thermal insulators, 'Liquid Ceramic' has been taken outside of its usual sphere of use in the aerospace sector and used for coating material. Liquid cermaics are normally used to insulate extreme heat between space rocket engines and delicate instruments/astronauts. By coating liquid ceramic onto the inside of a jacket for example the same theory is applied. It is possible to insulate the wearer from extreme cold conditions and keep him/her incredibly warm inside the jacket. Any fabric can be coated with the liquid ceramic. The liquid ceramic can be coated on the inside and can be worn on the outside (reversable) giving the coat a leather look and feel. Either way the coat keeps you incredibly warm at the same time as being incredibly light and flexible.

  19. Roam Jen Southern / Jack Euesden / Phil Euesden. The suit has been made in collaboration with Jack Euesden, a young audience member at Magna. Whilst making journeys together through several video games Jack chose a scene to be made into a suit that he then wore during his favourite walk in the Derbyshire hills. Having accumulated dirt and wear & tear, GPS data mapping their exact route was sewn into the front of the jacket. The garment is evidence of lived experience moving seamlessly between physical and data environments. http://www.roam-wear.com/

  20. Elroy - Megan Galbraith / MIT Media Laboratory / Aesthetics + Computation Group. Elroy is an illuminating dress that encodes time information. The panels periodically re-arrange their illuminated pattern to express time to the wearer. It is through series of flashes and varieties of patterns that Elroy can express encoded information in a manner visible to the wearer of the garment but not to external viewers. http://acg.media.mit.edu/people/megan/elroy/index.html

  21. Solar Powered Jacket Wearable technology announcement from ICP Solar Technologies: A jacket that stores power from the sun in a battery pack. http://www.icpsolar.com/html/pr010504.asp

  22. Designer Purse Wearable - Doug Sutherland (of MIT and Sun) project http://home.earthlink.net/~wearable/galleria/purse/

  23. Java Jacket - Doug Sutherland's mobile leather jacket computer using JINI; Sun Microsystems http://java.sun.com/features/2000/06/jacket.html

  24. Mudras - Francis Li and Oscar Salazar; exploring spirituality through clothing; IDII 2002 http://projects.interaction-ivrea.it/2002/desire/mudras/

  25. Rainbug - Jeremy Abbett and Franziska; a musical raincoat for children; IDII 2002 http://projects.interaction-ivrea.it/2002/desire/rainbug/

  26. Stijn's necklace - Stijn Ossevoort; expressive telecommunication in jewlery; IDII 2002 and Stijn's ring - Stijn Ossevoort; expressive telecommunication in jewlery; IDII 2002 http://projects.interaction-ivrea.it/endofyear/en/people/sossevoort.asp


• innovative uses of

  1. About.com : Wearable Technologies Resources - http://arttech.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http://www.praecogito.com/%7Ebrudy/wearable.html

  2. Factors Contributing to the Design of an Accurate and Comfortable, Wearable Body Monitor - http://www.bodymedia.com/pdf/Wearability_whitepaper.pdf

  3. MIT Wearable Computing Page - http://www.media.mit.edu/wearables/ or http://wearables.www.media.mit.edu/projects/wearables/

    Wearable Computer Systems for Affective Computing, Rosalind Picard, (Source: MIT Media Lab) http://affect.media.mit.edu/AC_research/wearables.html

    MIT's timeline history of wearable computing http://www.media.mit.edu/wearables/lizzy/timeline.html

  4. Wear-IT.net, his site is devoted to The University of Birmingham Engineering's growing area of technology known as wearable computing, or what could be thought of as Wearable IT!

  5. Seeing with Sound. The vOICe software translates images from a PC camera (webcam) into sounds that you hear via your headphones, thus targetting vision substitution applications for the totally blind by means of a wearable computer. http://www.seeingwithsound.com/voice.htm

  6. jAugment-Project A project aiming at writing everyday-{;}software optimized for wearables with{;}all kinds on IO-modalities and helping{;}with an infrastructure to try out new{;}soft- and hardwear of all kinds w/o{;}having to cope with too much framework-{;}code. http://jaugment.sourceforge.net/

  7. VoltaFlex is developing rechargeable lithium and lithium-ion battery components that are flat and very thin, resembling a sheet of plastic. These flexible power components are based on the dry solid polymer electrolyte (DSPE) that VoltaFlex has exclusively licensed from MIT. The resulting batteries utilizing DSPE are expected to operate over a wide temperature range, from sub-ambient to elevated (> 75 degrees C). Flexible battery http://www.voltaflex.com/tech.batt.html

  8. MIT's Intrabody Signaling (PAN) MIT technology licensed to IBM http://www.media.mit.edu/physics/projects/pan/pan.html

  9. Java Ring 1998. http://www.useit.com/papers/javaring.html

  10. No-Soap Radio - washable, crushable keypad made by e-broideryAM receiver used to listen to the transmitted signal using the body as an antenna

  11. Tiqit - Stanford's Matchbox web Server http://matchbox.stanford.edu/cebit.html; see Tiqit computers October 2002 http://www.tiqit.com/

  12. ETH prototype - ETH, Zurich, combining electronic infrastructure and fashion in everyday clothing http://www.wearable.ethz.ch/projects/research/textiles.html

  13. Soundbeam Neckset MIT Wearables Group; Mitin Sawhney http://web.media.mit.edu/~nitin/NomadicRadio/WhatNR.htm

  14. Andrew Singer's Programmable Tattoo implanted LCD readout visible through skin; Interval Research Center http://www.revelationwebsite.co.uk/index2/rev/tattoo.htm and http://www.styleborg.com/archives/000010.html

  15. The Poles Wearable Expedition - unassisted skiing expedition to South Pole using wearable computing http://www.humanedgetech.com/pages/technologyreport.htm

  16. The I Sensed Series - http://web.media.mit.edu/~clarkson/isensed/

  17. ETHZ Student Projects (collection) - http://www.wearable.ethz.ch/projects/students/

  18. Handy Truster first handheld lie-detector- http://www.handytrusters.com/retail.html


• conferences

  1. 3GSM in Cannes in February 2004 - Wearable Technology Fashion Show -This is a proper Fashion Show with professional models, catwalk, video wall, voice over, and 30 runs depicting the art of the possible in terms of business and lifestyle scenarios which highlight the merging of fashion, function and fun that mobile can bring into our lives. http://www.3gsmworldcongress.com/fashion/ see brochure at whisper.iat.sfu.ca/fashion_show_brochure.pdf

  2. the space between - An International Conference Exploring The Contemporary Interface Between Textile_Art_Design_Fashion - http://www.thespacebetween.org.au/ at the University's Bentley campus and other locations in and around Perth, Western Australia. April 15-17, 2004

  3. ISEA2004: The 12th International Symposium on Electronic Art Wearable experience (Tallinn) August 14th - 22nd, 2004 new media art - media culture research - electronic music - art and science - cultural and social applications for new media - http://www.isea2004.net

  4. The next full version of Wear Me will be at Science Museum's Dana Centre in Sept 2004. That version looks to bring together creative makers, artists and designers, with companies and universities developing the technology to commission new garments. For further information on the full exhibition, the contributors and other please contact andrew@p-l-a-n-b.co.uk or http://www.sciencemuseum.org.uk/ and http://www.danacentre.org.uk/

  5. O'Reilly 'Emerging Technologies Conference' - 'Hackers and other lead users are a great early warning system if you want to think about the future of technology,' contends Tim O'Reilly, founder and president of O'Reilly & Associates. Learning from hackers and showcasing what alpha geeks are playing with now is the premise behind the O'Reilly Emerging Technology Conference, convening in Santa Clara, CA from Feb 9-12, 2004. http://conferences.oreillynet

  6. 4th International Workshop on Smart Appliances and Wearable Computing, March 23-26, 2004, Tokyo, Japan

  7. 17th International Conference on Architecture of Computing Systems - Organic and Pervasive Computing, 23-26 March 2004, Augsburg, Germany http://www.informatik.uni-augsburg.de/lehrstuehle/info3/arcs04/

    Past Years

  8. user_mode = emotion + intuition in art + design - an international symposium, London, UK http://www.usermode.net May 9-11/2003, Tate Modern and Science Museum Email: ticketing@tate.org.uk PH: (44) 020 7887 8888 user_mode is an international, multidisciplinary symposium looking at interactive art and design practices. It will examine one of the key concerns for many creative practitioners - engaging the emotions of the audience/user.

  9. IEE Eurowearable '03... WEAR ME: An exhibition of intelligent garments, wearable technology and smart materials… monitoring: analysing the combination of physiological and environmental ... a knitted fabric stretch sensor... Wearable, hand-held and portable technologies are now pervading aspects of our everyday lives. This new annual European conference will consider both the technical and social aspects of these new technologies; bringing together researchers, designers and developers in this new and exciting multidisciplinary field. http://conferences.iee.org/eurowearable/ and http://conferences.iee.org/eurowearable/wearme.htm the workshop

  10. VSMM 2003 : 9th International Conference - continues to push the boundaries of Virtual Reality and Multimedia research with the theme "Hybrid Realities: Art, Technology and the Human Factor". This year's conference will feature an Opening night Imax screening, the Conference Banquet, and a special event by the Cirque du Soleil. www.vsmm.org/2003/index.cfm?pg=Program&l=en

  11. adorn, equip examines issues around the design of equipment and accessories used by disabled people. Consultation between artists, makers, designers and disabled people has inspired the production of beautiful, functional objects and thought provoking work. http://www.adornequip.co.uk/

  12. Tech-U-Wear 2001 http://www.tech-u-wear.com/

  13. ISWC 2001, ETH Zurich

  14. Juneay Arts and Humanities Council Annual Wearable Art Extravaganza http://www.juneauempire.com/stories/013003/thi_wearableart.shtml


researchers in fashion and technology

katherine moriwaki : kakirine.com :personaldebris.com
INCONVENIENT CLOTHING - These garments promote inconvenience, distraction, and take advantage of technological neuroses or paranoia http://www.kakirine.com/ and http://www.mee.tcd.ie/~moriwaki/radius/index.html and http://www.mee.tcd.ie/~moriwaki/handbag/

Maggie Orth - Was a graduate student at MIT, Worked on "Washable Computing" Embroidered circuitry, International Fashion Machines - her website: http://web.media.mit.edu/~morth/

Elise Co - Was a graduate student at MIT, Thesis: Computation and Technology as Expressive Elements in Fashion: http://acg.media.mit.edu/people/elise/thesis/index.html her website: http://acg.media.mit.edu/people/elise/

Megan Galbraith - current graduate student at MIT her website - http://acg.media.mit.edu/people/megan/

• academic papers / presentations

(rated from 1-5, with 5 as the most relevant to whisper project)

  1. Smart Systems: Wearable Integration of Intelligent Technology - http://www.people.cornell.edu/pages/led6/article.html

  2. The Embroidered Musical Ball: A Squeezable Instrument for Expressive Performance, (2000) Weinberg, G., Orth, M., and Russo, P., (short paper), Proceedings of Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, (CHI 2000), The Hague: ACM Press. (Accessed Jan, 2004) http://web.media.mit.edu/~morth/chiball/chiball.pdf Rated 3.5

  3. A Layered Approach To Wearable Textile Networks, Kristof Van Laerhoven, Nicolas Villar and Hans-Werner Gellersen, Department of Computing, Lancaster University (Accessed Jan, 2004) http://www.comp.lancs.ac.uk/~kristof/research/papers/eurowearable_2003a.pdf Rated *5*

  4. Why Wearable Audio Computing? (Source: 2000 MIT) Nitin Sawhney (Accessed Jan, 2004) http://web.media.mit.edu/~nitin/NomadicRadio/WhyWAC.htm Rated 3

  5. Design of a Wearable Tactile Display, Gemperle, F., Ota, N., and Siewiorek, D., IEEE Computer Society (2001) (Accessed Jan, 2004) http://www.wearablegroup.org/publications/tactile-display.pdf Rated 4.5

  6. Why Wear a Computer (video) (Source: University of Bristol)David May (Accessed Jan, 2004) http://www.hpl.hp.com/hosted/mbristol/films/may.wmv Unrated

  7. Wearable Computing Meets Ubiquitous Computing: Reaping the best of both worlds, (Source: 1999 MIT Media Lab) Bradley J. Rhodes, Nelson Minar and Josh Weaver (Accessed Jan, 2004) http://xenia.media.mit.edu/~rhodes/Papers/wearhive.html Rated 3

  8. Context-awareness in wearable and ubiquitous computing (Source: Georgia Tech) Gregory D. Abowd, Anind K. Dey, Gregory Abowd, Robert Orr & Jason Brotherton (Accessed Jan, 2004) http://www.cc.gatech.edu/fce/pubs/iswc97/wear.html Rated 3

  9. The Challenges of Wearable Computing Parts 1 http://www.ece.umd.edu/courses/enee759m.S2002/papers/starner2001a-micro21-4.pdf, Parts 2 http://www.ece.umd.edu/courses/enee759m.S2002/papers/starner2001b-micro21-4.pdf (Source: 2001) T. Starner (Accessed Jan, 2004) Rated 4

  10. Fashion and Technology Meet, Touch and ...? (Source: IDII Designing Desire Report)
    (Accessed Jan, 2004) Unrated

  11. Research Dierections in Wearable Computing http://www.hitl.washington.edu/consortium/mark598/sld001.htm (Accessed Jan, 2004) Unrated

  12. The Epidermic Interface: New Directions in Wearable Technology and Fashion - a lecture by Sabine Seymour and Katherine Moriwaki at Numer02 in Paris, April 2002 http://a.parsons.edu/~fashiontech/epidermis/fall2003/sessions/numer02_presentation.pdf (Accessed Jan, 2004) Rated 4.5

  13. Francine Gemperle, Design for Wearability (Accessed Jan, 2004) http://www.ices.cmu.edu/design/wearability/files/Wearability.pdf
    Rated 5

  14. The WearBoy: A Platform for Low-cost Public Wearable Devices Peter Ljungstrand, Staffan Bjork and Jennica Falk PLAY: Applied research on art and technology Viktoria Institute, Gothenburg, Sweden http://www.viktoria.informatics.gu.se/play/ We introduce the WearBoy “a wearable, modified Nintendo GameBoy“ as a platform for exploring public wearable devices. We have minimized a Color GameBoy to enable users to comfortably wear it, making the device not much larger than the actual screen. Technical properties of the WearBoy are discussed, along with two applications using the platform (Accessed Jan, 2004) http://play.tii.se/publications/1999/wearboy.pdf Rated 4

  15. Mazé, R., & Jacobs, M. (2003). Sonic City: Prototyping a Wearable Experience. International Symposium on Wearable Computing (ISWC) '03 (short paper). [ Abstract http://play.tii.se/publications/2003/asoniccity.iswc.html ] (Accessed Jan, 2004) Unrated

  16. The Museum Wearable: real-time sensor-driven understanding of visitors' interests for personalized visually-augmented museum experiences. F. Sparacino Proceedings of Museums and the Web (MW2002), April 17-20, Boston, 2002 (Accessed Jan, 2004) http://xenia.media.mit.edu/~flavia/Papers/flavia_mw2002.pdf Rated 3.5

  17. Wearable Cinema/Wearable City: bridging physical and virtual spaces through wearable computing. F. Sparacino, G. Davenport, A. Pentland IMAGINA 2000, invited presentation, Montecarlo, January 31st-February 3rd 2000 (Accessed Jan, 2004) http://xenia.media.mit.edu/~flavia/Papers/flavia_imagina00.pdf Unrated

  18. Technologies and methods for interactive exhibit design: from wireless object and body tracking to wearable computers F. Sparacino, K. Larson, R, MacNeil, G. Davenport, A. Pentland International Conference on Hypertext and Interactive Museums, ICHIM 99, Washington, DC, Sept. 22-26, 1999 (Accessed Jan, 2004) http://xenia.media.mit.edu/~flavia/Papers/flavia_ichim99.pdf Rated 4

  19. Wearable Performance Flavia Sparacino, Alex Pentland, Glorianna Davenport International Symposium on Wearable Computers, Cambridge, Massachusetts, October 13 - 14, 1997 (Accessed Jan, 2004) http://xenia.media.mit.edu/~flavia/Papers/Wear.html Rated 4.5

  20. Van Laerhoven, K., Schmidt, A. Gellersen, H.W.(2003) Limitations of Multi-Sensor Context-Aware Clothing. Special Issue on Wearable Computers, Journal on Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, 7(3) (Found citation Jan, 2004) Unrated

  21. Fashion Victims: an Unconventional Research Approach in the Field of Mobile Communication
    http://people.interaction-ivrea.it/d.agnelli/on/fv/resources/ismid04_fv_v01.pdf. Presented at ISMID '04 , Istanbul (Turkey), January 2004 http://isimd2004.yeditepe.edu.tr/ Producing tools potentially helpful in performing a research in context of mobile phone communication. As soon as the garment we decided to design (a bag, specifically, is our first working prototype) exists and works, it’s time to give it to real people in the real worl d. So this bag becomes an exploratory tool for understanding and mapping behaviors and attitudes in the context of mobile phone usage. (Accessed Jan, 2004) Rated 5


• corporate articles

  1. Backgrounder Wearable Electronics http://www.wearable-electronics.de/intl/background/Wearable_Backgrounder.pdf

  2. E-broidery: Design and Fabrication of Textile Based Computing E.R. Post, (Source: 2000 IBM) http://www.research.ibm.com/journal/sj/393/part3/post.html

  3. Contrasting Paradigms for the Development of Wearable Computers C. Baber, (Source: 1999 IBM) http://www.research.ibm.com/journal/sj/384/baber.html

  4. New body art: Wearable wireless devices Scott Stemberger (scott@stemberger.com ) Etensity 1 January 2002 This article discusses the status of wearable computers; the challenges faced by software and hardware manufacturers in developing effective and widely accepted wearable devices; and the commencement of a new paradigm for how wearable technology can create value for consumers and enterprises.


• news articles

  1. Underwear Calls for Help During a Different Kind of Emergency. Electronics giant Philips has unveiled underwear that can monitor a user's heartbeat and dial for help in case of emergency. 10/10/2003 http://www.betterhumans.com/Errors/index.aspx?aspxerrorpath=/Search_Engine_Links/2003/searchEngineLink.article.2003-10-10-5.aspx

  2. IBM Article Scott Stemberger Manager, Etensity 1 January 2002: New body art: Wearable wireless devices

  3. I4U Future Technology News - Focus on cool technology http://www.i4u.com/

  4. Technology Review: Clothes Make the Network - Researchers looking beyond the individual personal-area network to the frontier of social computing, research into wearables. http://www.techreview.com/articles/wo_Rheingold120402.asp?p=1

  5. Weaving New Functions Into Fashion, Lamont Wood, (Source: Chicago Tribune. October 2002)

  6. Wearable Devices Pose for the Future, Ben Charny , (Source: c|net 11 May 2001) http://news.com.com/2100-1033-257474.html?legacy=cnet#

  7. Wearable Computing in Jewlery? Neil Kleinman, (Source: Pen Computing. May 2001.)

  8. IBM Gets Fashionable With Wearable Cell Phones, Tom Spring, (Source: PC World. November 2000) http://www.pcworld.com/news/article.asp?aid=33322

  9. Fashion 1.0 - Modular Flexible Mobile System Doug Sutherland, (Listserve source: 2000) http://wearables.blu.org/wear-hard-00/20003744.html

  10. Computerized Clothes are Still the Fashion of the Future Joyce Slaton, (Source: mBusinessDaily. 2002) http://www.mbusinessdaily.com/magazine/story/archive/december-2000/AllTech

  11. Communicating Clothes J¿rgen Sundgot, (Source: InfoSync World. May 2002) http://www.infosyncworld.com/system/print.php?id=1843

  12. Clothing That Connects Anne Eisenberg, (Source: International Herald Tribune. 7 Feb. 2003) http://www.iht.com/articles/85985.html

  13. Wireless, Wearable, and Wondrous Tech - Shoshana Berger, (Source: CNN. 17 Jan. 2003) http://www.cnn.com/2003/TECH/ptech/01/17/bus2.ptech.ces.roundup/

  14. Hardware, Ready to Wear - (Source: PC World. September 2000) http://www.pcworld.com/news/article/0,aid,18325,00.asp

  15. Future Watch: Digital Clothing, Fax Pens Ashlee Vance, (Source: PC World. August 2000) http://www.pcworld.com/news/article/0,aid,18307,00.asp

  16. Heeding Your Wardrobe (Source: ABC News. December 2000) http://abcnews.go.com/sections/tech/CuttingEdge/cuttingedge001208.html

  17. What Your Clothes Say About You, Elisa Batista, (Source: Wired. 12 Mar 2003) Clothing designer Benetton plans to weave radio frequency ID chips into its garments to track its clothes worldwide. The chips will help the Italian clothing manufacturer cut costs by eliminating the need for workers to take inventory by manually scanning individual items of clothing. It will also protect the garments against theft, analysts say. http://www.wired.com/news/print/0,1294,58006,00.html

  18. I, PC Shrinking chips and other new technologies are spreading computer power all over the body and then out to the network. Christina Wood, Popular Science, April 2002


smart fabrics

• reference

  1. Technical Textiles Net. (accessed Jan, 2004). http://www.technical-textiles.net/webindex.htm

  2. Smart Fabric - detailed report on conductive textiles. This paper describes some of the techniques used to build circuits from commercially available fabrics, yarns, fasteners, and components.

in art and design

  1. (MEGA) or the Multisensory Expressive Gesture Applications, a Smartex project the wearable garment sensor for dancers, funded by EU as part of (accessed Jan, 2004). http://www.smartex.it/uk/projects/garsensor.htm

  2. Helping Computers Escape From Their Boxes Out Into the World. Maggie Orth, Opera of the Future Group, MIT. (accessed Jan, 2004). http://web.media.mit.edu/~morth/TTTtalk.htm

  3. Touchware Chair, ACM SIGGRAPH Gallery 98. (accessed Jan, 2004). http://www.siggraph.org/artdesign/gallery/S98/touch.html

  4. International Fashion Machines. (MIT Media Lab startup). (accessed Jan, 2004). http://www.ifmachines.com/what-we-do.html  http://www.ifmachines.com/design_firefly-dress.html

  5. PLAY Interactive Institute - IT & TEXTILES Textiles and computational technology share a common background in the early days of automation and industrial production. Today, we see a new opportunity for these two – by now – rather disparate areas to be rejoined in an investigation of new design spaces for everyday things. http://play.tii.se/projects/itextile/

  6. E-Culture Fair - October 23-24, 2003 - Amsterdam, The Netherlands http://www.eculturefair.nl :
    a) Taking a playful approach to adverse weather conditions was Elise Co's "Puddle Jumper", a raincoat with electro-luminescent panels that lit up when water fell on the coat

    b) International Fashion Machines' "Electric Plaid", a panel of interwoven conductive thread and silk-screened thermochromic inks that slowly changed colors when electricity was applied to the thread.

    c) "Inside/Outside", a series of networked handbags that measure localized pollution (smoke, audio, exhaust, etc=8A) and connect to each other over an ad-hoc (or spontaneous) network to exchange data and aggregate a diary of exposure levels over time.

    d) Focusing on biometric feedback was Sompit Moi Fusakul's "Interactive Ornaments: Emotions in Motions" which measured the wearer's heart rate and transposed this result on kinetic and illuminated jewelry.

    e) Jenny Tillotson's "Smart Second Skin", a dress that emits odors depending on biometric feedback from the wearer.


in social situations and fashion

  1. Telecommunications carrier France Telecom, through its research development unit, unveiled a "smart" scarf/jacket for the mobile worker of tomorrow. The clothing item, called the 'echarpe communicante' was introduced in Workspheres, a design exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art examining the changing nature of the workplace. http://www.electronicshadow.com/mediacol/index.htm

  2. Musical Jacket Project. Media Lab, MIT University. (accessed Jan, 2004). http://www.media.mit.edu/hyperins/levis/

  3. Burton Shield Jacket, Burton Snowboards. (accessed Jan, 2004). http://www.burton.com/Burton/gear/products.asp?productID=729

  4. The Visually Unobtrusive WearComp. (accessed Jan, 2004). http://wearcam.org/historical/node11.html

  5. Stone Island Systems Research Archive - A great archive on textiles used by Stone Island http://www.stoneisland.com/test.phtml including steel and bronze fabrics (accessed Jan, 2004).

  6. IDENTITY SERVICE A future service for collecting, storing and communicating personal identity, expressed through wearable interfaces
    Francesca Rosella (Italy) http://www.interaction-ivrea.it/theses/2002%2D03/f.rosella/

  7. Metal Fibres in Textiles. (accessed Jan, 2004). http://www.bekaert.com/corporate/products/technical textiles.htm http://WWW.BEKAERT.COM/bft/Products/Innovative Textiles/Metal fibres in textiles.htm

  8. Reima Smart Clothing. (accessed Jan, 2004). http://www.reimasmart.com/

  9. Heated Motorcycle Clothing http://www.motorcycle-uk.com/giali/Gialiheatedclothing.html

  10. Intelligent Fibers Group at Phillips http://www.extra.research.philips.com/password/passw3_4.pdf

  11. Fabric Computing Interfaces - http://web.media.mit.edu/~morth/fabCHI/chifabric.pdf

  12. Nancy Tilbury, fashion designer working in the wearable-electronics project at Philips Research laboratories, Redhill, UK http://www.research.philips.com/InformationCenter/Global/FArticleDetail.asp?lArticleId=2039&lNodeId=931&channel=931&channelId=N931A2039

  13. The Epidermis as Metaphor The Art of Creating Intelligent Clothing http://moondial.typepad.com/epidermis/


innovative uses

  1. Tactex Controls Inc. -'Kinotex' is an innovative multi-touch, pressure-sensing technology that was originally developed for the Canadian Space Agency to give robot arms a sense of touch. It is, in effect, "Digital Skin". http://www.tactex.com/products.htm

  2. Fibre Computing (FiCom) project , an EU-funded project with the Disappearing Computer initiative. The main objective of FiCom is to integrate computing ability directly into fibres. Clothes, furniture and many other products can then be woven from these flexible and functional fibres. http://www.fibercomputing.net/public/index.php3

  3. Brian Toone, and James Chen. Computational Textile. (accessed Jan, 2004). http://graphics.cs.ucdavis.edu/~jchen007/UCD/ECS289B/Presentation/ComputationalTextile.ppt

  4. Metal Fibres in Textiles. (accessed Jan, 2004). http://www.bekaert.com/corporate/products/technical textiles.htm
    http://WWW.BEKAERT.COM/bft/Products/Innovative Textiles/Metal fibres in textiles.htm

  5. Material ConneXion®. Where professionals—architects, engineers industrial and interior designers, manufacturers—access specifications and manufacturers’ contacts for the latest, most innovative materials and processes from around the world. How? Through our on-line database or physical library http://www.materialconnexion.com/intro.htm (accessed Jan, 2004).

  6. Canesis - Innovative Technology Solutions and Services provider of research, development and technology services. Canesis is a world leader in applying science and engineering to the world of textiles for fashion and industrial applications, product and process development and evaluation services in the fields of fibre, textiles and related consumer and industrial products. http://www.canesis.com/Canesis_Operations.shtm

  7. Redhill, August 3, 1999 - Philips Research and Philips Design have unveiled a unique mix of electronic and textile technology to create an entirely new clothing concept:  'Wearable Electronics'. http://www.research.philips.com/InformationCenter/Global/FPressRelease.asp?lArticleId=1891&lNodeId

  8. ElekTexª is the name used to describe Eleksen's core technology, which incorporates smart fabrics, electronics and software. (accessed Jan, 2004). http://www.eleksen.com/flash/default.shtml

  9. Smartex centered on the modeling and real-time analysis, synthesis, and networked communication of expressive and emotional content in non-verbal interaction by multi-sensory interfaces, from a multimodal perspective. (accessed Jan, 2004). http://www.smartex.it/uk/

  10. Thinking Materials. (accessed Jan, 2004). http://www.thinkingmaterials.com/

  11. Wearable Computing Lab: Electronic Textiles http://www.wearable.ethz.ch/textiles.0.html

  12. SOFTswitch, a unique technology developed to enable textiles to function as interfaces to control any type of electronic device. Essentially, this means that soft flexible fabrics can be used in place of conventional hard switches, keypads, keyboards, buttons or knobs. SOFTswitch fabrics are touch sensitive so they can also be used for proportional control or pressure sensing. Softswitch fabrics can interface directly with any type of electronic device without the need for signal processing or complex software. http://www.softswitch.co.uk/SOFTswitchAbout.html  (accessed Jan, 2004).

  13. Sensatex. The SmartShirt System incorporates advances in textile engineering, wearable computing, and wireless data transfer to permit the convenient collection, transmission, and analysis of personal health and lifestyle data. (accessed Jan, 2004). http://www.sensatex.com/

  14. Reconfigurable Fabric Project - The emerging technology of flexible electronics, where electronics components such as transistors and wires are built on a thin flexible material, offers a similar opportunity to weave computation, storage, and communication into the fabric of the very clothing that we wear. The characteristics of the flexible electronics technology and the novel applications enabled by it require innovation at the system-level technology level. The technology of electronics in flexible materials has characteristics and computation-communication cost trade-offs that are very different from that of silicon and PCB-based electronics. http://rfab.cs.ucla.edu/ http://rfab.cs.ucla.edu/11_1slides.pdf

  15. Electrotextiles Foster-Miller has established itself as the leader in developing and delivering practical solutions for wearable electronics networks with cables and connectors that are as flexible as the fabric itself. One area Foster-Miller has been working on is attachment of wearable flexible printed circuit boards (PCBs). This work focuses on integration of the textile and printed circuit board fields, specifically materials modifications necessary to enable the high flexibility of textiles as well as practical issues of mechanical wear and machine washing durability. http://www.foster-miller.com/t_s_electro_textiles.htm

  16. Kinesthetic sensing and smart fabrics http://www.piaggio.ccii.unipi.it/kine.htm
  17. top

• academic papers/ presentations

(rated from 1-5, with 5 as the most relevant to whisper project)

  1. Hallnäs, L., Melin, L. and Redström, J. (2002). A Design Research Program for Textiles and Computational Technology. In Nordic Textile Journal, No. 1, 2002, pp. 56-63. The Textile Research Centre, CTF, Borås. (Accessed Jan, 2004)
    [ Abstract http://play.tii.se/publications/2002/atextile.html ]

  2. Hallnäs, L., Melin, L. and Redström, J. (2002). Textile Displays; Using Textiles to Investigate Computational Technology as Design Material. Presented at NordiCHI 2002, Aarhus, Denmark, October 19-23. (Accessed Jan, 2004)
    [ PDF http://play.tii.se/publications/2002/textiledisplays.pdf ]
    Rated 4

  3. Smart Fabric, or Washable Computing, E. Rehmi Post, Maggie Orth. (1997). The Digest First IEEE International Symposium on Wearable Computers, Cambridge, MA, (1998) (Accessed Jan, 2004) http://web.media.mit.edu/~rehmi/fabric/ and http://web.media.mit.edu/~rehmi/fabric/index.html Rated 5

  4. Sculpted Computational Objects, with Smart and Active Computing Materials, Orth, M., (May, 2001)Thesis for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy, at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA. (Accessed Jan, 2004). http://web.media.mit.edu/~morth/thesis/thesis.html Rated 5 - long

  5. Fabric Computing Interfaces (1998) Orth, M., Post, R., and Cooper, E. B., (short paper), Proceedings of Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, (CHI '98), Los Angeles, ACM Press (Accessed Jan, 2004) http://web.media.mit.edu/~morth/fabCHI/chifabric.pdf Rated 5

  6. Smart Fabric, or "Wearable Clothing", Digest of Papers, First International Symposium on Wearable Computers, 1997. Pages 167-168 (Accessed Jan, 2004) http://www.computer.org/proceedings/iswc/8192/81920167abs.htm Unrated

  7. Interactive Electronic Textile Development: A Review of Technologies (Spring 2002) Meoli, D., and May-Plumlee, Tin Journal of Textile Apparel, Technology and Management, Volume 2, Issue 2, North Carolina State University (Accessed Jan, 2004) http://www.tx.ncsu.edu/jtatm/volume2issue2/ articles/meoli/meoli_full.pdf   Rated 5

  8. Design of a Wearable Tactile Display (2001) Gemperle, F., Ota, N., and Siewiorek, D., IEEE Computer Society (Aaccessed Jan, 2004). http://www.wearablegroup.org/publications/tactile-display.pdf Rated 4.5

  9. Smart Shirt article, Georgia Insttitute of Technology (Accessed Jan, 2004)
    Rated 4

  10. Textiles for Signal Transmission in Wearables, T. Kirstein, D. Cottet, J. Grzyb and G. Tršster, MAMSET 2002, Proceedings Workshop on Modeling, Analysis and Middleware Support for Electronic Textiles , San Jose, CA, 6. October 2002, pages 9-14 (Accessed Jan, 2004) http://www.wearable.ethz.ch/fileadmin/pdf_files/pub/kirstein02a.pdf Rated 5

  11. Textiles for Wearable Computing Systems, T. Kirstein, J. Bonan, D. Cottet and G. Tršster. Hightex, Proceedings , Saint-Hyacinthe, Canada, 23. April 2002 (Accessed Jan, 2004) http://www.wearable.ethz.ch/fileadmin/pdf_files/pub/kirstein02.pdf Rated 5

  12. Multi-Sensor Context Aware Clothing, Kristof Van Laerhoven, Albrecht Schmidt and Hans-Werner Gellersen, Ubicomp Group, Lancaster University http://www.comp.lancs.ac.uk/~kristof/old/papers/iswc_2002.pdf Rated 4


• corporate articles

  1. Infineon's fashion trend: Wearable chips - Infineon's Emerging Technologies Group has developed chips, sensors and packages that allow the processors to be woven into fabrics. Special materials woven into the fabric are used to connect the chips and sensors. http://www.fibercomputing.net/public/news/articles/infineon_wearable_chip.pdf

  2. Function Goes Fashion (9 Jan 2002) - A t-shirt made for the US Army can indicate a soldier's wounds and sends signals for the wounded to be located. Intelligent clothing is in the making - but does it fit everyday fashion styles? http://www.fibercomputing.net/public/news/articles/fashion_function.pdf

  3. Mirror Fibers Could Create Photonic Fabrics (25 April 2002) - MIT researchers have created high-performance mirrors in the shape of hair-like flexible fibers that could be woven into cloth or incorporated in paper. Applications may include fabrics with embedded "bar codes" that identify the wearer, potentially useful in the battle suits of future soldiers; or a lightweight cloth that reflects radiation, protecting from blasts of heat. These mirrors could also be used as filters for telecommunications applications. http://www.fibercomputing.net/public/news/articles/mirror_fibers.pdf

  4. Smart Fabrics and Interactive Textiles - A Global Market Opportunity Assessment http://www.vdc-corp.com/components/reports/03/br03-02.html and http://www.vdc-corp.com/components/works/smartfabrics.html

  5. E-broidery: Design and Fabrication of Textile-based Computing, Post, E.R., Orth, M., Russo, P.R., Gershenfeld, N., IBM Systems Journal, Vol. 39, Nos 3&4, Armonk, NY, IBM Corporation, (2000). (accessed Jan, 2004). http://www.research.ibm.com/journal/sj/393/part3/post.html

  6. Siglinde Zisler, Director of the German Master School of Fashion, Munich, about the clothing market and the convergence of technology and textiles http://www.wearable-electronics.de/intl/background/Statements_Zisler.pdf

  7. O’Neill Unveils Snowboard Jacket with Integrated Infineon Electronics - Entry into Future Market of ‘Wearable Electronics’ - leading provider of high-quality sportswear and sports gear - today unveiled the result of a joint product development project: their first ‘wearable electronics’-product. Based on O’Neill’s specifications, Infineon has developed a chip module suitable for integration into a pioneering snowboard jacket. Adapted to withstand raw snowboarding environments, functions such as “mobile telephony by Bluetooth” and “MP3 player” are integrated into the sportswear. The outstanding innovation from O’Neill’s 2004/05 winter collection for the technologically clued-in snowboarder is named “THE HUB”. http://www.wearable-electronics.de/intl/401_027e.asp

  8. Active fabric: Electronics, optics integrated into clothing shows initial success - http://www.natick.army.mil/about/pao/pubs/warrior/02/janfeb/smartclo.htm


• news articles

  1. New Nanotechnology Fibre With Antibacterial Properties, Korea : March 10th 2004, Fibre2Fashion magazine http://www.fibre2fashion.com/news/NewsDetails.asp?News_id=6230

  2. Teich's Tech Tidbit  - July 2003 - Fabrics That Glow (and Do Other Tricks) http://www.alteich.com/tidbits/t070103.htm

  3. Infineon: Smart fabric based on neural chip network - IDG News Service 5/5/03 http://www.itworld.com/Tech/3494/030505smartfabric/

  4. Beyond Touch: The Body As Perceptual Tool. Ullrich, Polly. Fiberarts, Vol. 26, No. 1 , Summer, 1999. pp. 43-48.

  5. Mark Baard. E-Fabrics Still Too Stiff to Wear. (accessed Jan, 2004). http://www.wired.com/news/technology/0,1282,56708,00.html

  6. Glenn Grant. In A Store Near You; Smart Fabrics. Freelance Traveller. (accessed Jan, 2004). http://www.freelancetraveller.com/features/consgoods/smartfab.html

  7. Kevin Bonsor. How Computerized Clothing Will Work. HowStuffWorks. (accessed Jan, 2004).
  8. How Digital Jewelry Will Work.Howstuffworks (accessed March, 2004).

  9. Katie Dean. Smart Fatigues Hear Enemy Coming. Wired. (accessed Jan, 2004). http://www.wired.com/news/gizmos/0,1452,55764,00.html

  10. Leander Kahney. Introducing Touchy-Feely Tech. Wired. (accessed Jan, 2004). http://www.wired.com/news/technology/0,1282,40117,00.html

  11. Textile Forum 1/2003 New Technologies and Materials II - English edition, Light emitting optical fibres, manufactured into clothing and home textiles,  by Luminex S.p.a.. in Prato ©Caen and ©Cern Textile Forum: 56 pages, 24 high quality colour pages, A4-format. Most of the articles are presented with complete contact addresses. http://www.etn-net.org/shop/magazines/2003_1e.htm

  12. Smart Fibres, Fabrics and Clothing, Tao, Xiaoming, Hardcover, 316 pages http://www.textileworldasia.com/Products.htm?CD=16&ID=67

  13. Clothing that changes colour to match your mood - Information technology, it appears, is finally leaving its hard plastic box. Display technology will eventually be all around us, even painted on walls and ceilings. And personal technology will be woven into our clothing. http://www.expresstextile.com/20030911/itintextiles01.shtml

  14. Technological Innovation Concerning Textile Clothing Industry http://www.technica.net/NT/NT3/innovation.htm

• conferences

  1. NordiCHI 2004 conference in Tampere on 23-27 October 2004. http://www.cs.uta.fi/nordichi2004/


physiological sensors

• general

  1. http://www.medien.informatik.uni-muenchen.de/en/events/pi03/proceeding.htm - specifically: "Sensing Opportunities for Physical Interaction" & "Designing Physical Interaction with sensor drawbacks in mind" from ETH in Zurich

  2. "Smart-Its" - small-scale embedded devices that can be attached to everyday objects to augment them with sensing, perception, computation, and communication. These devices augment mundane artefacts with a "digital self", are cheap, unobtrusive and as generic as state-of-the-art smart labels (i.e., RFID tags). In addition, they will be enabled with perception of their environment, with peer-to-peer communication, and with customizable behaviour. http://www.smart-its.org/

  3. Wireless Body Area Network by Interuniversity MicroElectronics Center in Belgium

  4. Ken Rinaldo Technical Links for Artists: Sensors. (accessed Jan, 2004). http://www.ylem.org/artists/krinaldo/links/technical.html - t17


in art and design

  1. The Crossing project presents alternate paradigms of information access, integrating the hand and the body in the act of computer-based communication and learning. http://www.crossingproject.net/project/intro.htm and http://www.crossingproject.net/movie/project.asf

  2. David Rosenboom   On Being Invisible - http://music.calarts.edu/~david/mediaworks/media.html

  3. Werner Cee & Horst Prehn   Braindrops - http://www.foro-artistico.de/english/program/system.htm

  4. Nina Sobel  Brainwave Drawing Game - http://www.cat.nyu.edu/parkbench/brainwaveDrawing.html

  5. Bruce Gilchrist & Johny Bradley  SleepEvent - http://www.oxford-artsculture.net/ox1_artist.htm

  6. Rokeby (not David) - Memex  - http://www.memex.org.uk/  or http://www.iniva.org/season/veil/project_03

  7. Seiko Mikami    Borderless Under the Skin - http://www.v2.nl/Projects/Mikami/gif_link_text/borderless.html

    Ear's project  - World, Membrane and the Dismembered Body - http://bionet_org.tripod.com/ear1.html

  8. Char Davies  Osmose, Ephemere - http://www.immersence.com/ 

  9. Sabrina Raaf - Saturday, REM Static http://www.raaf.org/

  10. Darij Kreuh & Davide Grassi Brainscore - http://www.kibla.org/brainscore/

  11. Nita Sturiale- thoughtflow - http://nitasturiale.com/thoughtflow/Tf.html

  12. Ansuman Biswas, Self/Portrait http://www.thelab.org/archive01/gateway/self-portrait.htm and http://www.wired.com/news/culture/0,1284,48623,00.html

  13. Sensorband - http://www.sensorband.com/root.html

  14. Sharon Daniel, Strange Attractors - http://arts.ucsc.edu/sdaniel/docu/safrmset2.html

  15. Atsuhito Sekiguchi - Connecting RE- Body Body Scanning, Interactive work to meet a variety of bodies through different sensors and interfaces :At different places in the exhibition site, visitors can have their bodies scanned with different kinds of sensors for shape, voice(#), temperature, etc. for data-processing. These data are processed into the specially programmed three-dimensional CG's in real time, and projected on the wall. Visitors can have their changing bodies registered, and have access to them due to individual voice qualities. http://www.canon.co.jp/cast/artlab/archives/artlab9/index.html

  16. Frank Fietzek Schmarotzer - Parasites (heat detection) - http://www.aec.at/festival2001/bilder/showone.asp?ID=2892

  17. Barney Haynes Symbiont - http://www.ultrafuzz.net/symbiont.html

  18. Gene Cooper, Sustained http://www.fourchambers.org/sustained/flash.html

  19. Garnet Hertz Galvinism experiments http://conceptlab.com/

  20. Janet Cardiff. To Touch (1993) - http://www.abbeymedia.com/Janweb/touch.htm

  21. Jean Dubois. - http://eavm.uqam.ca/eavm/enseignants/dubois/image4.html (accessed Jan, 2004) http://www.horizonzero.ca/loader_en.html (accessed Jan, 2004)

  22. Christa Sommerer and Laurent Mignonneau. Works. (accessed September, 2003) - http://www.iamas.ac.jp/~christa/index.html

  23. Christian-A. Bohn, Monika Fleischmann, Wolfgang Strauss. Liquid Views (1993). (accessed Jan, 2004). http://www.siggraph.org/artdesign/gallery/S98/artists/artists3/fleischman.html

  24. Alan Dunning and Paul Woodrow. The Mnemonic Body (Einsteins' Brain Project). (2001). (accessed October, 2003). http://www.subtletechnologies.com/2002/mnemonicbody.html

  25. Richard Register. Tactile Dome: In Touch With Feeling. (orig. 1971). The Exploratorium. (accessed September, 2003). http://www.exploratorium.edu/visit/tactile_dome/index.html

  26. Erwin Driessens, Maria Verstappen. Tickle Salon. (accessed September, 2003). http://www.xs4all.nl/~notnot/TickleSalon/TickleSalon.html 

  27. The Presence of Touch. Livingstone, Joan and Wilson, Anne (exhibition curators), Department of Fiber, The School of the Art Institute of Chicago July, 1996. (accessed November, 2003). http://www.artic.edu/webspaces/touch/mainframe.html
  28. A violent sensual symbiosis - Mating man & machine: Solve et Coagula
    The violence of things connected: Solve et Coagula is primarily an attempt to give birth to a new lifeform: half digital, half organic. Through a multisensorial, full duplex sensory interface the installation networks the human with an emotional, sensing and artificially intelligent creature; it mates man with a machine turned human and everything that goes with it: ecstatic, monstrous, perverted, craving, seductive, hysterical, violent, beautiful. Body suit: The body suit of the user serves as an intelligent, two way communication interface to the creature. It provides (i) tactile stimuli so that the creature can touch the user's body, and (ii) the creature sense the body condition of the human through the built-in bio-sensors. a project by Knut Mork and Stahl Stenslie Cowork/Coprogramming by Lars Nillsson and Karl Anders Oygard http://www.gar.no/sec


• in social situations and fashion

  1. "Ambient Agoras" adds a layer of information-based services to the place, enabling the user to communicate for help, guidance, work, or fun. The computer as a device will disappear, but the functionality will be available in a ubiquitous and invisible fashion. It aims at turning every place into a social marketplace (= agora) of ideas and information where one can interact with people. http://www.ambient-agoras.org

  2. VivoMetrics LifeShirt - VivoMetrics' flagship product is the LifeShirt (TM), a comfortable, washable garment that can be worn at home, work, or play. The shirt's embedded sensors continuously monitor 30+ physiological signs of sickness and health. http://www.vivometrics.com/site/system.html

  3. BIOFEEDBACK IN EDUCATIONAL ENTERTAINMENT - Jan Raposa (Slovenia) is a project that introduces new approaches to biofeedback training, wearable computing, and computer gaming. It is an exploration in making physiological information entertaining, engaging, and informative. This project investigates the medium of a wearable, biosensor-effected, computer game as it examines a hypothesis that fun and playful body monitoring devices are more effective at making people understand the disorders than established biofeedback systems. The project results in a design proposal for a wearable device geared towards children suffering from asthma, a basic platform for body monitoring, a biosensor-enabled computer game, and a series of studies of the proposed device. The prototype analysis has demonstrated that presenting physiological information through a wearable computer game could be an engaging way to achieve the goal of self-efficiency. http://www.interaction-ivrea.it/theses/2002%2D03/j.raposa/


• innovative uses

  1. BodyMedia makes and sells a suite of integrated tools that enables researchers and clinicians to collect continuous and accurate physiologic and lifestyle dataÑanytime... anywhere. Helping people get fit, prevent health problems, and take control of their own wellness. 'Our proprietary method for measuring heat flow is an important factor in determining outcomes such as calories burned, activity level and sleep .' http://www.bodymedia.com/products/monitor.jsp

  2. Project lyt_A. (accessed Jan, 2004). http://lib.fo.am/cgi-bin/view/Libarynth/ProjectLyta#Sensor_technology

  3. Biometrics at Michigan State University: Project Abstracts - Particularly for personal identification and security purposes: http://biometrics.cse.msu.edu/abstracts.html#encrypt

  4. Wear and Forget” Sensors for Health Monitoring Foster-Miller brings practical, rugged, comfortable textile expertise to the incorporation of sensors in wearable garments. This system provides tracking and evaluation of an individual's physiological condition, such as hydration level, alertness, and heart rate, based on a platform of gel-free sensors. http://www.foster-miller.com/projectexamples/t_bt_physiological_monitoring/Wear_Forget_Sensors%20.htm

  5. Thumbscript's new Feather-Touch Input Device. For those who need a rest from keyboard stress, or for mobile / wearable use: This feather light, Feather-Touch USB device allows full keyboard emulation. With one light stroke of the finger or thumb for each character. Faster than Graffiti, it is silent and can even be used without looking. http://www.thumbscript.com/feathertouch.html

    Available now at our Yahoo Store http://store.yahoo.com/thumbscriptstore. Reviewed by The-Gadgeteer.com http://www.the-gadgeteer.com/thumbscript-review.html

  6. The Cyberlink senses and responds to minute surface electrical signals generated from subtle muscle, eye movement, and brainwave activity detected at your forehead.  These signals are detected by three sensors in the headband and are amplified, digitized and transmitted to the computer where they are decoded into multiple frequency bands known as Brainfingers™.  By controlling the computer’s mouse-curser, Brainfingers can be used to control virtually all aspects of a computer. They can navigate almost any Windows application such as web browsers, business and productivity software, communication devices, musical synthesizers, sound cards, and even games. Brainfingers can also activate peripheral devices, adjust environmental controls, and affect feedback displays. Just about any application that can be controlled with a mouse can be controlled with the Cyberlink http://www.brainfingers.com/cyberlink.htm (Jan's addition)

  7. Equator - a six-year Interdisciplinary Research Collaboration (IRC) supported by EPSRC that focuses on the integration of physical and digital interaction. The IRC brings together researchers from eight different institutions and a variety of disciplines that address the technical, social and design issues in the development of new inter-relationships between the physical and digital. A series of research challenges explore new classes of device that link the physical and the digital, research into adaptive software architectures and new design and evaluation methods that draw together approaches from social science, cognitive science and art and design. As digital systems (like the Web) converge with local and wide area networks, and cellular phone communications, new devices and services proliferate - many of them mobile, or embedded in the environment. This is their device list: http://www.toolkit.equator.ecs.soton.ac.uk/infrastructure/browse/components_devices.html

  8. The Journey to Wild Divine – biofeedback game www.wilddivine.com/
    Featured in Wired Magazine in the November 2003 issue The Journey to the Wild Divine is a computer/ biometrics game that challenges the player to use and change their own body state to play the game to move to new levels in the game. Packaged with biosensors measuring skin conductance level and heart rate variability through “three ‘Magic Ring’ sensors gently attached to your fingers”, they aim to help players to calm their bodies and minds through this entertainment medium, using traditional computer game environments and fantasy narrative puzzle elements, but instead the interface is a set of biosensors and your body functions a rather than a mouse.

  9. Cranial-Electro Stimulation CES http://store.yahoo.com/toolsforwellnesscom/ces.html
    Cranial electro machines use sensors under your ears to send a minute electrical impulse. All you feel is a slight tingling sensation on the skin. What this does is trick the brain to release serotonin which helps relieve anxiety, tension, and the feeling of being “on edge.”

  10. Flanagan Neurophone http://store.yahoo.com/toolsforwellnesscom/neurophone.html
    D eveloped in 1958 by Patrick Flanagan, was able to demonstrate that the brain also hears sounds that vibrate on the skin.
    To use this technology, you place the sensors on the forehead under a headband. Then plug the unit into your sound source, such as a CD player. The sensors cause your skin, the largest organ of the body, to vibrate to the music you’ve selected, much like a speaker vibrates. By bypassing the ear, you are using a completely different part of the brain to process the sound creating new neural pathways.


• articles - some are uncategorized and unrated

  1. Resistance is Fertile: Gesture and Agency in the Field of Responsive Media, Sha Xin Wei - (5/9/03)discusses gesture and agency in the presence of emerging technologies and the use of sensors in perfromance (accessed March, 2004), www.lcc.gatech.edu/~xinwei/papers/ texts/Resistance_Is_Fertile.pdf - Rated 5

  2. Combined Force Display System of EMG: Sensor for Interactive Performance, (ICMC 2003). Yoichi Nagashima, Shizuoka University of Art and Culture / Art & Science Laboratory http://nagasm.suac.net/ASL/paper/icmc2003-1.pdf . - Rated 5

    See also Bio-Sensing Systems and Bio-Feedback Systems for Interactive Media Arts(2003) http://nagasm.suac.net/ASL/NIME03/index.html, - Rated 5

    Interactive Multi-Media Performance with Bio-Sensing and Bio-Feedback(2002) http://nagasm.suac.net/ASL/paper/ICAD2002.pdf - Rated 5 and

    Interactive Multimedia Art with Biological Interfaces (2002) http://nagasm.suac.net/ASL/paper/IAEA2002.pdf - Rated 5

  3. Sense and sensability :a framework for designing physical interfaces, (2002) Steve Benford,Steve Holger Schnadelbach, Boriana Koleva, Mark Paxton, Rob Anastasi, Chris Greenhalgh and Bill Gaver, The Mixed Reality Laboratory, The University of Nottingham
    Computer Related Design Group, The Royal College of Art (accessed March, 2004),
    machen.mrl.nott.ac.uk/PublicationStore/ 2002-benford.pdf
  4. - unrated

  5. revised version: Sensible, sensable and desirable: a framework for designing physical interfaces, Steve Benford, Holger Schnadelbach, Boriana Koleva, Bill Gaver, Albrecht Schmidt, Andy Boucher, Anthony Steed, Rob Anastasi, Chris Greenhalgh, Tom Rodden and Hans Gellersen (2003) The Equator Interdisciplinary Research Collaboration, The Mixed Reality Laboratory, The University of Nottingham, UK, Interaction Design , The Royal College of Art , UK, Computing Department, Lancaster University, UK
    Department of Computer Science, University College London, UK (accessed March, 2004),
  6. - unrated

  7. Perfect Match: Biometrics and Body Patterning in a Networked World, Gillian Fuller, School of Media and Communications, UNSW, http://journal.fibreculture.org/issue1/issue1_fuller.html - unrated
  8. Robotic Systems And Tactile Sensing - http://www.piaggio.ccii.unipi.it/tatto.htm - unrated

  9. Triangles: Tangible Interface for Manipulation and Exploration of Digital Information Topography, Gorbet,M., Orth M., and Ishii, H., in Proceedings of Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, (CHI 1998), Los Angeles, ACM Press, (1998). (accessed Jan, 2004). http://web.media.mit.edu/~morth/fabCHI/chifabric.pdf - unrated

  10. Triangles: Design of a Physical/Digital Construction Kit, G orbet, M., and Orth, M., in Proceedings of Designing Interactive Systems (DIS '97), Amsterdam, ACM Press, (1997) pp. 125-128. (accessed Jan, 2004). http://web.media.mit.edu/~morth/tridis/tridis.pdf - unrated

  11. Interface to Architecture: Integrating Technology into the Environment of the Brain Opera, Orth, M., The Proceedings of Design of Interactive Systems, (DIS 1997), Amsterdam, ACM Press, (1997). (accessed Jan, 2004). http://web.media.mit.edu/~morth/dis97/bodis.pdf - unrated

  12. Sensitive Skin. Lumelsky, V.J., Shur, M.S., and Wagner, S., IEEE Sensors Journal, Volume 1, Number 1. (June, 2001). - unrated

  13. Stop Making Sense: Designing Sensor-Based Interactions To Facilitate Exploration And Reflection, Yvonne Rogers And Henk Muller, University of Sussex1 and University of Bristol http://machen.mrl.nott.ac.uk/PublicationStore/2003-rogers.pdf - unrated

  14. Designing Physical Interaction with Sensor Drawbacks in Mind (Slides), Stavros Antifakos, Jan Borchers and Bernt Schiele ETH Zurich, Switzerland http://www.medien.informatik.uni-muenchen.de/en/events/pi03/papers/antifakos.pdf - unrated

  15. Sensing Opportunities for Physical Interaction (Slides), Florian Michahelles and Bernt Schiele, ETH Zurich, Switzerland http://www.medien.informatik.uni-muenchen.de/en/events/pi03/papers/michahelles.pdf - unrated


Books - Wearables, Smart Fabric and Sensors

The Supermodern Wardrobe
Andrew Bolton, 2002 Victoria & Albert Museum, ISBN 0810965879

Sportstech: Revolutionary Fabrics, Fashion and Design
Sarah E. Braddock ,Marie O'Mahony, 2002 Thames and Hudson; ISBN: 0500510865

Techno Textiles: Revolutionary Fabrics for Fashion and Design
"Sarah E. Braddock, Marie O'Mahony, Marie O'Mahoney " 1999, ISBN 0500280967

Techno Fashion
Bradley Quinn 2002 Berg Publishers; ISBN: 1859736203

The New Textiles: Trends and Traditions
Chloe Colchester, Thames and Hudson; ISBN: 0500277370

Fundamentals of Wearable Computers and Augmented Reality
Woodrow Barfield and Thomas Caudell (editors), IBSN 0805829016

Fetish: Fashion, Sex, and Power
Valerie Steele , 1996 Oxford University Press, ISBN 0195090446

New Nomads. An exploration of wearable electronics by Philips
David Eves, Josephine Green, Clive van Heerden, Jack Mama and Stefano Marzano
Edited by David Eves, Josephine Green, Clive van Heerden, Jack Mama, Stefano Marzano and Laura Traldi 2000 http://www.010publishers.nl

Materials & Design: The Art & Science of Material Selection in Design
Ashby & Johnson, Butterworth Heinemann 2002

From Use to Presence: On the Expressions and Aesthetics of Everyday Things
Hallnas & Redstrom (2002)

Design Noir: The Secret Life of Electronic Objects
"Anthony Dunne, Fiona Raby ", 2001 Princeton Architectural Press, ISBN 3764365668

Brave New Unwired World
Alex Lightman & William Rojas, ISBN 0471441104

The Significance of “Craft” Qualities in Creating Experiential Design Products
Kalviainen (1999)

Designing Products with Added Emotional Value
Desmet & Overbeeke (2001)

Abstracting Craft: The Practiced Digital Hand
McCulloch’s MIT Press 1996

Sculpted Computational Objects
Orth’s PhD thesis, MIT 2001

Tools for Thought
Howard Rheingold, MIT Press 1985ISBN 0-262-68115-3

Travels in Hyperreality
Umberto Eco, 1990 Harvest BookISBN 0-15-691321-6

Understanding Media, The Extensions of Man
Marshall McLuhan, MIT Press Edition 1994 (original (c) 1964 Connie Mcluhan)

Wireless Intelligent Networking
Gerry Christensen, Paul G. Florack, Robert Duncan, 2001 Artech House, ISBN 1-58053-084-2

Computers as Components
Wayne Wolf, 2001 Academic Press/Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, ISBN 1-55860-541-X

Usability Engineering
Mary Beth Rosson and John M. Carroll, 2002 Academic Press/Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, ISBN 1-55860-712-9

The Cyborg Handbook
Chris Hables Gray, 1995 Routledge, ISBN 0-415-90848-5

Information Design
Robert Jacobson, 1999 MIT Press, ISBN 0-262-60035-8

The Design of Everyday Things
Donald A Norman, 1988 Doubleday, ISBN 0-385-26774-6

Affective Computing
Rosalind W. Picard, 1997 MIT Press, ISBN 0-262-16170-2

Belgian Fashion Design
Luc Derycke and Sandra van de Veire, January 2000 ISBN 90-5544-244-5

City of Bits
William J. Mitchell, 1997 MIT Press, ISBN 0-262-13309-1

IDEO Masters of Innovation
Jeromy Myerson, ISBN 3-8238-5485-2

Information Appliances and Beyond
Eric Bergman, 2000 Academic Press, ISBN 1-55860-600-9

Internet Future Strategies
Daniel Amor, 2002 Prentice Hall, ISBN 0-13-041803-X

Media and Architecture
Bart Lootsma and Dick Rijken, 1997 VPRO, ISBN 90-6727-030-X

The Pervasive Computing Handbook
Uwe Hansmann, Lothar Merk, Martin S. Nicklous, Thomas Stober, 2001 Springer, ISBN 3-540-67122-6



keywords > (from Future Physical)



Types of sensors as defined by Megan Galbraight:
buttons and switches
force-sensitive resistors resistance varies as more force is applied
“bend” sensors resistance varies as material is bent
strain gauges
pressure through displacement
hall sensors (magnetics)
metal detectors
solar cells
linear, 2d arrays
integrated video camera chips
active sonar ranging
beam forming, beam width
monopulse, sidescan sonar
ball in cup, bubble levels (tilt)
macro-particles (smoke, smell, optical scattering)


INPUT/SENSORS - source http://a.parsons.edu/~fashiontech/fall2003/index.html
Sensing: where, who, what, when, how , why
Types of sensors as defined by Claudio Pinhanez:

The following are suggestions but definitely not a complete list of possible outputs:
Visual outputs: LEDs, graphic displays (LCDs, OLEDs), projections
Sound: buzzers, speakers
Surface changes
Fog, smoke, spray

Ohm's Law
V = I R
I “current”
V “voltage”
R “resistance”
Microprocessor/Microcontroller is the brains of the garment/product. It is a single-chip computer that can run and store a program.

The following are suggestions but definitely not a complete list of possible connectors:
Buttons (conductive materials)
Conductive wiring